Small animal advances

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Unveiling the Zoonotic Significance of Toxocariasis in Humans: The Role of Toxocara canis

Ali Jahanmahin1, and Hassan Borji2,*

1Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Toxocara canis, with significant effects onhuman health. This article provideda comprehensive overview of the importance of complications of Toxocara canisinfection. The introduction highlightedthe relevance of zoonotic diseases and introducedtoxocariasis as a specific example. The subsequent sections delvedinto toxocariasis, covering its transmission, lifecycle, host specificity, and primary sources of human infection. The epidemiology section presentedthe global prevalence and distribution of toxocariasis at 11.1% (95% CI:10.6–11.7%), emphasizing high-risk groups and geographical factors contributing to illness. Detailed information wasprovided regarding the clinical manifestations of toxocariasis, including variations in disease severity and potential complications. Symptoms of visceral toxocariasis include fever, fatigue, coughing, wheezing, or abdominal pain. The diagnostic methods includelaboratory methods (serological testing and western blot) and molecular techniques(PCR),and clinical methods (chest X-ray and CT scan). The prevention and control section outlinedstrategies for prevention, highlighting the significance of public health measures and awareness campaigns. The One Health approach hasrecognizedthe interconnections between human health, animal health, and the environment, and highlights the necessity of cooperative actions to prevent the spread of diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.Future directions need to highlight ongoing research and advancements, including improved diagnostic tools, targeted therapies, risk assessment, and international collaboration. The conclusion reinforces the importance of understanding and addressing Toxocara canis infection on human health. Adopting a One Health approach and implementing effective prevention, diagnosis, and treatment strategies can reduce the burden of toxocariasis, leading to improved health outcomes for humans and animals.

1. Introduction.

Zoonotic diseases, which can be passed between animals and humans, pose a significant risk to public health worldwide1,2. These diseases can originate from various sources, such as parasites3-5, bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and effects on human health can range from minor to severe, occasionally leading to widespread outbreaks and epidemics6,7. Understanding and addressing zoonotic diseases is crucial for safeguarding human and animal populations.Toxocariasis is one of the zoonotic diseases caused by the parasitic roundworm Toxocaracanis8. Toxocariasis primarily affects mammals, including dogs, but can also infect humans, making it a significant public health issue9. The importance of Toxocara canisis due to the ability of Toxocara canisto complete its lifecycle in animals and humans10,11.

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