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Treatment of Avian Trichomoniasis by Tannin-based Herbal mixture (Artemisia Annua, Quercus infectoria, and Allium Sativum)

Soheil Sadr , Seyed Ali Ghafouri1 , Abolfazl Ghaniei , Danial Jami Moharreri , Marzieh Zeinali , Nasim Qaemifar , Parian Poorjafari Jafroodi , Zahra Hajiannezhad , and Amir Hossein Atazade

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran 3Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Corresponding author: Seyed Ali Ghafouri, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Email:


Introduction: Trichomonas gallinae (T. gallinae) infects numerous species of birds worldwide. Many antiprotozoal drugs have been utilized for therapeutic purposes. Herbal plants extracts do not result in drug resistance or tissue residue; therefore, they are a dependable and safe substitute for treating trichomoniasis. The current study, the antitrichomonal properties of three herbal plants (Quercus infectoria, Artemisia annua, and Allium sativum) were compared to those of metronidazole in pigeons. Materials and methods: In this experiment, 32 pigeons were used, each of which was divided into four groups with four replicates. All groups were experimentally infected with T. gallinae except for group D. Group A was treated with a herbal mixture (80% Quercus infectoria extract, 11% Artemisia annua extract, and 9% Allium sativum extract [standardized to 8% total tannic acid]; Coccyphyt-L®; Makian Dam Pars Science-Based Company), while Group B was given metronidazole. The positive control group C was experimentally infected but not treated with T. gallinae, while group D remained healthy throughout the experiment. The experiment consisted of a performance index, weight gain, wet mount, and biochemical and hematological examination. Results: Compared to metronidazole, the treatment with a herbal mixture significantly reduced the pathogenic effects of Trichomonas spp. After a week of treatment, chickens in group A were nearly healthy and, in some respects, superior to those in the metronidazole treatment group. Conclusion: In conclusion, the antiprotozoal properties of the aforementioned herbal mixture suggest its use as an alternative antitrichomonal agent to chemotherapeutic drugs in trichomoniasis treatment.


Avian protozoal trichomoniasis is a harmful infection caused by the Trichomonas gallinae (T. gallinae) protozoan parasite1,2. This infection is widespread among wild and domestic birds, especially those of Columbiformes, such as pigeons and doves3,4. The parasite is transmitted from infected mothers to their offspring via crop milk feeding in doves and pigeons5. Transmission among adults occurs through contaminated food, and water3. Lesions caused by T. gallinae can be categorized as mild, moderate subclinical infections, and severe irritation infections of the upper gastrointestinal tract with lesions in the pharynx that can cause death by starvation due to the obstruction of the esophageal lumen6,7. However, chronic disease can also affect the liver Pigeons afflicted with canker are treated with various medications8. For several years, nitroimidazoles, including metronidazole (MTZ), have been the drugs of choice for treating trichomoniasis in birds9.

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