Farm animal Health and Nutrition

Table of Contents

The Innate Immunity Defense against Gastrointestinal Nematodes: Vaccine Development

Narges Lotfalizadeh , Soheil Sadr , Safa Moghaddam , Mahdis Saberi Najjar , Amin Khakshoor , Pouria Ahmadi Simab and Hassan Borji

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran 3Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


The nematode parasite infects both humans and animals, causing severe infections. Their unusual surface structures, in particular, pose significant challenges to the immune system. Vaccine-induced immunity, mediated by the innate immune system, could be crucial in the development of an adaptive effector response. The purpose of this paper was to provide an overview of recent research on the host’s innate immune system, barriers, and cells that respond to parasitic nematodes. This study investigated the nematode-associated molecular patterns that may recognize by the host. Given that innate defense is more than just a static barrier against pathogen infections. It can actively contribute as a director of the adaptive immune response, which is ultimately responsible for the rejection of invasions. Some nematode parasites can actively move through tissues, they pose a challenge to the innate immune system. Furthermore, their cuticular surface, which varies with each molting, cannot be phagocytosed. The nematode’s thin, carbohydrate-rich surface layer, as well as the chemicals produced by this layer, cause the first contact with the host’s innate immune system. It can be concluded that all components of the innate immune response can be activated and play an important role in the adaptive immune effector response.


Gastrointestinal nematodes are among the most prevalent worms that infest humans1. People are frequently exposed to nematode parasites, particularly in countries lacking proper medical services and effective hygiene standards. Nematodes can cause significant injury to infected humans or animals. They can be transmitted through water, food, soil, or close contact with animals. These parasites can cause damage to several tissues and organs by feeding on host tissues or locating larval stages inside organs2. In general, nematodes can be avoided by increasing basic hygiene standards. Mild anemia, gastrointestinal pain, diarrhea, decreased cognitive development, or limited growth is all symptoms of nematode infection. Furthermore, nematodes infest animals, and controlling gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes is critical to improving animal health and welfare and expanding livestock production3. Many common and costly diseases are caused by GI nematodes in food animals such as small ruminants, cattle, pigs, and poultry production systems around the world. Some gastrointestinal nematode species are sensitive to animals, particularly those with outdoor access and pigs and poultry kept indoors. In lambs, for example, Haemonchus contortus can cause substantial death rates4. Gastrointestinal nematodes are primarily responsible for chronic infection and concealed subclinical losses, which affect wool growth and quality, milk production, weight loss, and reproductive issues5. Farmers must raise their production efficiency to remain competitive as a result of these losses. Infection of livestock with gastrointestinal nematodes has resulted in serious health issues as well as a loss of output. This issue has sparked increased interest in disease control approaches such as anthelmintic medicines, vaccinations, and selective breeding for host resistance.

Read more

Leave A Comment