Farm animal Health and Nutrition

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Radiographic Evaluation of Bone Healing Following Oral Administration of Bone Broth and Quail Eggs on Experimentally Drilled Femoral Bone Defect in Rabbits

Ekaete Ime Oviawe1,2,*, Samuel TankoFadasan2, MarufLawal2, MohammedHadiSuleiman3, and Abdulaziz Abdullahi Bada2

1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria

2Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


Introduction: Radiography can monitor bone healing to detect delayed healing, non-union, and mal-union early. This studyaimed to monitor bone healing, following oral administration of quail eggs and bone broth (BB) on a bone defect in the rabbit model.Materials and methods: A total of 24 adultwhite New Zealand rabbits were used in the study. They were divided into four six groupsbefore creating a 3.5 mm bone defect. The first group received a daily oral dose of BB, the second group a daily oral dose of quail egg (QE), and the third group received a daily oral dose combination of BBand quail eggs (BQE). At the same time, the fourth group was given an oral daily dose of distilled water (CN) for 12 weeks. Radiographs were taken at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12weekspostoperative. An experienced radiologist blinded to the groupings scored theradiographs on a scale of 0-4 based on mineral opacity. Results:At week 6, the BB and BQE groups differed significantly from the QE and CN groups. There was a significant difference between the treatmentsand the control group at weeks 8 and 10. The complete healing of BB and BQE groups occurred before week 10. The healingof two rabbits in the QE group was donebefore week 10 althoughthe others completedhealing before week 12. The CN group did not heal even after week 12.Conclusion:Using radiography, Monitoring the bone healing rate was done successfully. The BQE group showedthe fastest healing, followed by BB, and QE groups.

1. Introduction:

Radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays or similar ionizing radiation to view the internal structure of an object1.Bone defects are serious conditions in which a portion of the bone isdamaged or missing due totrauma, infection, tumors, or congenital malformations. Conventional treatments such as reset, fixation, and functional exercise usually result incompletehealingfor short bonedefects. However, the situation becomes extremely difficultwhenthe defect is too large2. Quail egg has several nutritional benefits,such as antioxidants, protein, lipids, cholesterol, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin E,and minerals such as nitrogen, iron,and zinc3. Bone broth is traditionally known to improvehealing4. It is a liquid containing cooked bones and connective tissues,which can be made from cow, chicken,and even fish bones. It is usually simmered for 24 -48 hours when cooking, giving the stock enough time to extract all the nutrients from thebones5. It has been estimated that approximately 5–10% of the population experiencedifficulty in bone healing, resultingin delayed bone healing, non-unions,and malunions,which could have been avoided with adequate monitoringandnutritional support6.Bone healing is a process of renewal of the bone tissue7.The ability of bone tissues to repair itself often fails when a defect istoo complicated or too large to be bridged, often leadingto delayed healing8.Surgical management and autografts are the current gold standard treatment for bonedefects,which can be used along with adjunct therapy to enhance bone healing9,10.

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