Soheil Sadr , Pouria Ahmadi Simab , Melika Kasaei , Mahdieh Gholipour Landi , Hassan Borji3 and Ghazaleh Adham
Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Clinical Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran
Corresponding author: Hassan Borji, Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are one of the most prevalent and significant problems in livestock worldwide. This study aimed to review the potential of anthelmintic herbal drugs against gastrointestinal nematodes in farm animals. Anthelmintic drugs are the most common method of controlling GI nematodes since they are simple, cheap, and provide therapeutic and prophylactic protection. However, the problem has become complicated due to the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs because anthelmintic drugs are used indiscriminately to treat parasitic diseases. Anthelmintic resistance in GI nematodes of ruminants is a global problem. Many domestic animals possess multi-class resistance to all classes of anthelmintics. Synthetic anthelmintics could be unsafe as they can cause side effects and toxicity. Therefore, plants are used to develop and discover novel substances acting as anthelmintics. Herbal drugs have become increasingly popular because of their fewer side effects in recent years. Consequently, the demand for herbal formulations of anthelmintic drugs is increasing. The development of instrumental analysis accelerates the preparation of phytochemical constituents and their standardization, and this field is becoming critical for research.
Helminths can affect farm animals, humans, and livestock in the tropics1. Helminth infections in livestock are among the most prevalent diseases in developing countries. Globally, it is estimated that about 2 billion people are infected by intestinal nematodes2. Helminthborne diseases can be chronic and debilitating; they cause significant morbidity and economic and social deprivation among humans and animals3. Treatments of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in domesticated animals have an economic value as the disease may cause increased mortality, decreased live weight gain, reduced wool growth and yield, decreased fertility and milk production, rejection of carcasses or organs for human consumption, depressed appetite, impaired GI functions, changes in protein, energy, and mineral metabolism, change in water balance, and predispositions to other diseases4. Today, anthelmintic resistance is recognized as a problem worldwide involving the leading anthelmintic families5. The definition of resistance varies in different publications. According to the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP), anthelmintic resistance occurs in ruminants and horses when a drug fails to reduce fecal nematode egg count by at least 95%6.