Table of Contents

Phytosomes: A Promising Nanocarrier for Enhanced Delivery of Herbal Compounds in Cancer Therapy

Muhammad Saeed1,*, Soheil Sadr2, Arian Gharib3, Narges Lotfalizadeh2,Ashkan Hajjafari4,Pouria Ahmadi Simab3, and Hassan Borji5

1 Institute of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan

2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

4Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



Cancer is a life-threatening disease that remains a global health problem, with millions of people diagnosed yearly. Despite significant progress in cancer treatment, conventional chemotherapy still faces several limitations, including poor solubility, low bioavailability, lack of selectivity, and severe side effects. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are necessary to improve cancer therapy. This review aimed to provide an updated overview of phytosome complexes and their potential application in cancer therapy, including their formulationtechniques, transportation mechanism through phytosome, and recent investigations on their efficacy in treating different types of cancers. In recent years, nanotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to cancer therapy, as it enables the delivery of therapeutic agents to the tumor site with higher selectivity and efficiency. Phytosomes are a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system conjugating plant extracts or phytoconstituents with phospholipids. This conjugation results in the formation of a complex with improved solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytosomes have been shown to enhance the pharmacokinetic profile of phytoactive compounds, allowing for better targeting and sustained release. Phytosomes of curcumin, resveratrol, and quercetin have demonstrated anticancer properties in various in vitroand in vivomodels. Moreover, phytosomes have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel, and camptothecin, with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity. Phytosome complexes offer a promising platform for cancer therapy due to their ability to enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of phytoactive compounds. Incorporating phytosomes in cancer therapy could lead to the development of more effective and less toxic treatments for different types of cancers. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of phytosomes and to optimize their formulation for clinical use.

1. Introduction:

Cancer is a complex disease that results from the uncontrolled growth and proliferation of cells1. It is a leading cause of death worldwide, and its incidence is expected to rise in the coming years. Despite significant progress in cancer treatment, chemotherapy remains limited due to poor solubility, low bioavailability, and systemic toxicity2. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel drug delivery systems that can overcome these limitations and improve cancer therapy. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have emerged as promising platforms for improving cancer therapy3.

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