Veterinary Physiology

Table of Contents

Nanotechnology-based Approaches for the Treatment of Toxocariasis: A Prospective Review

Ali Jahanmahin1, and Hassan Borji2,*

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran



Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocaraparasites, is a prevalent parasitic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Conventional anthelmintic drugs for toxocariasis face challenges such as limited efficacy and potential adverse effects, necessitating exploring alternative therapeutic strategies. Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of toxocariasis. This prospective review provides an overview of the potential of nanotechnology in toxocariasis treatment and highlights critical advancements in the field. The current review aimed to provide an overview of toxocariasis and the current challenges in its treatment,such as limited efficacy and potential adverse effects. It emphasizedthe need for novel therapeutic approaches to overcome these limitations. The subsequentsection focusedon nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems, discussing the nanoparticles used in toxocariasis treatment, their advantages, and strategies for enhancing drug delivery efficiency.Nanotechnology in targeted therapy is a great strategy for treatingtoxocariasis. It exploredtargeting Toxocaraparasitesusing nanoparticles, surface modifications for enhanced targeting, and controlled release and sustained drug delivery techniques. Nanodiagnostics and imaging techniques in diagnosing and monitoring providepromising futures for controlling toxocariasis. It exploredthe use of nanosensors for the sensitive detection of Toxocaraparasites and various imaging modalities for parasite visualization. These advancements enabledtimely intervention and personalized treatment strategies. Furthermore, the application of nanotechnology in vaccine developmentis fruitfulfor preventing toxocariasis. It highlights the use of nano vaccines for enhanced immune responses, controlled antigen delivery, and targeted immune cell activation. In conclusion, nanotechnology holds immense potential in the treatment of toxocariasis. Its unique features, such as targeted drug delivery, enhanced diagnostics, and improved vaccine efficacy, offer promising avenues for more effective and personalized approaches. Addressing evaluation, regulatory approval, cost-effectiveness, and scalability challenges is crucial for successful translation into clinical practice. The advancements in nanotechnology can potentially revolutionize toxocariasis treatment and improve patient outcomes.

1. Introduction:

Zoonotic diseases transmitted between animals and humans threaten global public health1,2. These diseases can arise from various pathogens, including parasites3-5, bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and their impact on human health can range from mild to severe, sometimes even causing epidemics6,7.Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaraspecies, mainly Toxocara canisand Toxocara cati8. It is a prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide, affecting both humans and animals9.

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