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Investigation of Salmonellosis during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic (2020-2023)

IngaBadasyan*, and R.V. NushikyanPhD,

Institute of Geological Sciences, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia


Withthe Coronavirus disease pandemicin 2020-2023,Salmonelladistribution has gained great concerted attention since COVID-19 treatment and salmonellosis was conditioned by antibiotics.The presentstudyaimedto investigate the incidence and clinical characteristics of Salmonellosis(salmonellosis gastroenteritis infection) in Armenia during the COVID-19 pandemic, between 2020 and 2023, without age restrictions.The genus Salmonellawas identified using biochemical tests and serological methodsat LaboratoriesofArmenia. Near 100 stool samples ere cultured on SS agar and selenite aquatic agar. The study identified 57 infected cases withSalmonellaspeciesand the majority of infection was in Yerevanpeople(n = 37 patients). The oldestpatient was 71 years old from the Stepanavan region. Common symptoms included high temperature, diarrhea, restraint, weakness, pus residue in stool, unformed stool, headache, and dizziness. Two children from the same family were infected with Salmonelladuring the study. The patients were treated with different antibiotics for 3-10 days, with rifampicin, cephalosporins (2nd and 3rd generation), and carbapenems being the most commonly administrateddrugs. The antibiotic susceptibility index was determined using the EUCAST documents. After the antibiotic therapy, the patients’ health was monitored for a month. Additionally, the study found the Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) enzymesin newborn,10-year-old, and 33-year-old patients.

1. Introduction:

According to the National Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Armenia, more than 350 annual cases of salmonellosis were estimated, associated with a large number of hospitalizations1. Moreover, as in recent years there is a tendency of increasing the consumption of chicken meat in Armenians’ diet, new problems might arise regarding.Salmonellosis is the second most commonly reported gastrointestinal infection, and an important cause of food-borne outbreaks in the EU/EEA2. The EU/EEA notification rate was 14.2 cases per 100 000 population. Salmonellagastroenteritis is a common cause of Salmonellosis, which typically manifests as diarrhea and abdominal cramps2. Pathogenic Salmonellaingested in food survives the gastrointestinal passage through the gastric acid barrier and invades the mucosa of the small andlarge intestines, producing toxins.As a result, this bacteria can disseminate from the intestines to cause systemic disease3. Therefore, Salmonellosis should be considered a possible diagnosis in any acute diarrheal or febrile illness without an obvious cause3. Diagnosis is confirmed by isolating the organism from clinical specimens obtained from the stool14. While the normal intestinal microflora protects against Salmonella, the laboratory identification of the genus Salmonellais made by biochemical tests (Figure1) and serological testing (Figure2), with the stool typically plated on SalmonellaShigella(SS) agar or selenite aquatic agar.

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