Daryoush Babazadeh1* , Ali Shabestari Asl2 , Alireza Sadeghi3 , Muhammad Saeed4 , and Arman Moshavery5 1 School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran 2 Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran 3 Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran 4 Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, 25120, Peshawar, Pakistan 5 Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran * Corresponding author: Daryoush Babazadeh, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Introduction: Portulaca oleracea (PO) plant, Omega 3, and Sodium Selenite plus Vitamin E have antidiabetic effects by compensating for the deficiency in insulin release and enhancing antioxidant status. The purpose of the present study was to comparatively assess the effect of Portulaca oleracea, omega-3, and a combination of Sodium Selenite and Vitamin E on hepatic enzyme activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rats. Materials and methods: A total of 48 adult male Wistar rats (weighing approximately 220 ± 10 g) were injected by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight.) and were randomly assigned to 4 groups, and 4 replicates for each group. Group 1 served as diabetic control, groups 2, 3, and 4 received Portulaca oleracea extract (1.5 mg/kg/day, orally), Omega-3 (500 mg/kg/day, orally), and Sodium Selenite (0.5 mg/kg/day, orally) plus Vitamin E (400 Iu/kg/day, orally), respectively, for 28 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were taken for biochemical investigations. Results: The levels of blood glucose, AST, ALP, and GGT enzymes in all treatment groups were less than those of the control group. The ALT enzyme activity in rats treated with Portulaca oleracea and Vitamin E plus Selenium was less than in control and omega-3 treatment groups. Conclusion: Results indicated that Portulaca oleracea is more effective on hepatic enzyme activities of diabetic rats, compared to other treatment groups.
Diabetes mellitus is a pathologic condition that causes extensive and non-physiological metabolic imbalance disorders, including an increase in blood glucose, and changes in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism in different body tissues, such as liver, and pancreas1,2. An increase in blood glucose initiates a series of cascade reactions, which leads to an increase in the production of free radicals (including oxygen free radicals) in various body tissues3,4. The high potency of these compounds for chemical reactions damages cells and tissues. Several reports have been published concerning the involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in tissue damages5 among which the high level of ROS in pancreatic islets and changes in oxidative stress markers in laboratory animals can be noted6. Aerobic cells can be protected against free radicals, particularly ROS, by antioxidants compounds, such as glutathione, Vitamins E and C, as well as super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), and catalase enzymes7,8. On the other hand, studies have also shown a significant decline in both non-enzymatic antioxidants (including rehabilitated glutathione (GSH) and Vitamin E) and enzymatic antioxidants (such as SOD, catalase, and GPx in diabetic rats)9,10. It has also been indicated that
free radicals can cause diabetic damages in different organs, such as the pancreas and liver, by declining SOD, catalase, and antioxidant activities10,11. Free radicals can also damage the unsaturated fatty acid in cell membranes12. The combination of fatty acids in cell membranes can affect cell membrane-related phenomena, such as the interaction between insulin and its receptors13. In addition, it has been indicated that the fatty acid composition of membrane phospholipids in insulin targets tissues, such as the liver and skeletal muscles, affecting both insulin secretion and its biological activity14. Red blood cells are also susceptible to oxidative damage due to the presence of fatty acid in their membrane and high concentration of oxygen and hemoglobin11. Hence, it is beneficial to use antioxidant compounds (particularly natural antioxidants) and omega3 fatty acids to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin E plus Selenium is one of the important food compounds which not only have high antioxidant properties, but it can also affect different biological processes of the body. Shamsi et al. 15 have also shown that Vitamin E decreases blood glucose in diabetic rats and reduces diabetic disorders. It has been reported that Vitamin E declines Malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases GSH and SOD in diabetic rats16. Vitamin E prevents lipid peroxidation and protects cells against peroxide radicals; thus, it is the most important antioxidant in the biological membrane, which can neutralize free radicals17. Selenium is the only trace element that enters the genetic code as selenocysteine. This element can be extensively found in selenoproteins, namely the GPx enzyme, through which the Selenium antioxidant effect can be activated18. Reports available on the efficacy of Selenium in diabetes have indicated a decline in the effectiveness of streptozotocin (STZ) and
enhancement of positive effects on GPX enzyme activity in laboratory rats19,20. Portulaca oleracea is a rich source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (alpha-linolenic acid), different vitamins (A, C, and E), and minerals which has different pharmacological (such as antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, and antimicrobial) properties21. However, bioactive compounds of Portulaca oleracea can have beneficial effects against diabetes22. Few studies are addressing the anti-diabetic effects of Portulaca oleracea in previous years23,24. Thus, the present study aimed to compare the effect of Portulaca oleracea, omega-3, and Sodium Selenite plus Vitamin E on hepatic enzyme activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Rats.