Mahsa Khiyabani,and Hossein Kazemi Mehrjerdi*
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
Skin is the largest organ in the human and animal body and serves as the first line of defense against the external environment. The present study aimed to summarize the mechanisms underlying the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on wound healingand describe the latest strategies to enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Wounds caused by cuts, abrasions, or burns can disrupt the skin integrity, leading to severe consequences, such as infections, scarring, and reduced mobility. Therefore, effective wound healing therapies are essential to reduce the risk of complications and improve the quality of life for patients. In recent years, MSCs have emerged as promising therapy for wound healing due to their unique properties. The MSCs are found in various tissues, including the bone marrow, and can differentiate into multiple cell types, including skin cells. Additionally, MSCs can secrete substances with anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, and pro-angiogenic properties, which play a critical role in the woundhealing process. The MSCs can release these substances as soluble molecules, such as growth factors and cytokines, or enclosed within membrane vesicles like microparticles and exosomes. By releasing these substances, MSCs can reduce inflammation, prevent excessive scarring, and promote the growth of new blood vessels, which are crucial for effective wound healing. The MSC-based therapies have indicated promising results for wound healing. However, the optimal dosage, route of administration, and timing of MSC-based treatments for wound healing applications are yet to be determined. Despite the great potential of bone marrow-derived MSCs to improve the healing process of damaged skin caused by wounds and burns, more research is needed to fully understand howMSCs enhance wound healing and optimize their use in clinical settings.
The skin is a complex and extensive organ that safeguards the body from manyexternal stressors, such as chemical, mechanical, and thermal factors, infections, and dehydration1. The wound healing process comprises four overlapping phases, includinghemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling2. Numerous growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines play a crucial role in regulating the wound-healing process3. Stem cells have gained substantial interest in regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types, which is vital for physiologic tissue regeneration after injury4. One type of stem cell that has shown great potential for wound healing applications is mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can be isolated from various adult tissuesas multipotent progenitor cells5. MSCs can proliferate and differentiate into various mesenchymal lineages, including osteoblasts, adipocytes, mesodermal chondrocytes, tenocytes, and myocytes6.MSCs can be obtained from various.