Ali Qasemi, Zeynab Bayat , Nazanin Akbari and Daryoush Babazadeh
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran Corresponding author: Daryoush Babazadeh, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Email: email@example.com; Daryoushbabazadeh@gmail.com
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), one of the five most important bacteria with global threat to human health due to constantly increasing resistance (ESKAPE organisms), identified as a enormous threat in healthcare facilities, can create antibiotic resistance. The implementation of early detection and identification of multidrugresistant A. baumannii is serious to control its spread. The this study presents the human infection of A. baumannii, pathological findings, virulence factors of A. baumannii, antibiotic resistance mechanisms, and the therapeutic options available for treating A. baumannii infections. The ability of A. baumannii to develop antibiotic resistance mechanisms allows the organism to prosper in hospital settings, facilitating the global spread of multidrug-resistant strains. To dominate this problem, knowledge of the pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii is important. As reported, A. baumannii resistance to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems increased, and resistance to lipopeptides, such as polymyxin B and colistin, are lower compared to that of other antimicrobial drugs. Therefore, novel prevention and treatment strategies against A. baumannii infections are warranted.
Antimicrobial or antibiotic resistance (AMR) is an important and triggering phenomenon with increasing costs for healthcare systems worldwide. In recent years, AMR has been related to significant morbidity, mortality, and increased costs resulting from prolonged hospitalization and treatment. Data from multicenter studies in the previous decades have demonstrated an increase in both community-acquired and nosocomial AMR as well as a rise in the number of older patients with primary or secondary immunodeficiencies1,2. The World Health Organization (WHO) has long recognized the need for an improved and coordinated global effort to contain AMR3,4. The first WHO Global report on AMR surveillance was conducted on national and international surveillance networks for the first time, indicating the extent of AMR surveillance in different parts of the world and the presence of large gaps in the existing surveillance4. Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) belongs to the Moraxellaceae family and is a Gram-negative bacterium that predominantly causes nosocomial infections. Acinetobacter taxonomy involves phenotypic traits and chemotaxonomic methods5. Acinetobacter baumannii is part of the A. baumannii – A. calcoaceticus complex (Acb), initially including four species, namely A. calcoaceticus, A. baumannii, A. nosocomialis, and A. pittii4. Subsequently, several other species, such as A. seifertii, have been proposed for inclusion in this complex5, A. lactucae6, and Acinetobacter species between 1 and 36. Acinetobacter infections include meningitis, urinary tract infections, hospital-acquired (HAP) and ventilatorassociated pneumonia (VAP), bacteremia, and gastrointestinal and skin/wound infections7. Gupta et al. observed that the infection was common in patients aged group >50 years followed by those younger than 10 years old8, indicating a wide range of infections at different ages. Due to clusters of closely related species, distinguishing Acinetobacter species is difficult.