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Ameliorative Effect of Methanolic Extract of Broccoli on Diclofenac Sodium-induced Oxidative Damage in Rat Kidney

Mahdeih Raeeszadeh1,*and Pouria Ahmadi Simab2

1Department of Basic Sciences, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran

2Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran



Introduction: Thisstudy aimedto investigate the potential protective effect of the methanolic extract of broccoli against oxidative stress induced by diclofenac in rats. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are known to cause nephrotoxicity, hence the need to explore thetherapeutic potential of medicinal plants.Materials and methods: A total of 48 adult male Wister ratswith a maximum age of 2-3 months with an average weight of 220 g were randomly divided into four equal groups (12 in each group).The first group was a control (C) and fed physiological saline without treatment. The second group (BC)was treated with broccoli methanolic extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/Intraperitoneal injection. The third group (DC)wastreated with diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg, Intra-muscular injection), and the fourth group was treated with diclofenac sodium (100 mg/kg, Intra-muscular injection) and broccoli (500 mg/kg/ Intraperitoneal injection). After blood collection, serum was isolated, and urea, creatinine, interleukin-1, and TNF-α were measured in blood serum. In kidney tissue, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were measured. At the end of the study, the samples were taken for histopathological investigation.Results:The results of the present study indicated that diclofenac sodium causes severe kidney damage. The creatinine and urea levelssignificantly increasedin the DC group,compared tothe control and other treatment groups. The proinflammatory biomarkers in blood serum increased in theDC group and significantly decreased in the BC+DC group compared with control and other treatment groups. These changes were in line with the significant decrease of catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme levels in the DC group and its increase in the BC group. Malondialdehyde increased in the DC group and reached its lowest level in the BC group. Hyperemic changes, accumulation of inflammatory cells, and bleeding were indicators of diclofenac tissue poisoning reported in the kidney.Conclusion:The results of biochemical and histopathological showed that broccoli extract at the dosage of 500 mg/kg with strong antioxidant potential can playa protective role against diclofenac damage in the kidney.

1. Introduction:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat acute muscle pain conditions due to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties1. However, their use at normal doses can cause gastrointestinal issues, while consuming high doses can lead to toxicity, causing acute or long-term chronic disorders such as renal diseases and cardiovascular disorders2. Additionally, NSAIDs can also affect the body’s oxidative balance3. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used NSAID to alleviate arthritis-associated pain and inflammation4. It is easily absorbed and accumulates at the site of inflammation, but its use can induce hepatorenal toxicity and cause changes in organs like the kidney, heart, and stomach5,6

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