Ali Dahmani1 , Nadjet Amina Khelifi-Touhami1,2* , Manal Khelifi-Touhami 3 , Nassim Ouchene 1,2 1 Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University of Saad Dahlab Blida 1, Road of Soumaa, BP 270, Blida, 09000, Algeria 2 PADESCA laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Road of Guelma 25100 El Khroub, University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Algeria 3 Bordj Menaiel Hospital, Street Madaoui Ali, BP70, 35000, Boumerdes, Algeria * Corresponding author: NA Khelifi-Touhami, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, University of Saad Dahlab Blida 1, Road of Soumaa, BP 270, Blida, 09000, Algeria, PADESCA laboratory, Institute of Veterinary Sciences, Road of Guelma 25100 El Khroub, University of Mentouri Brothers, Constantine 1, Algeria. Email: email@example.com
Introduction: Brucellosis is one of the most important worldwide zoonotic diseases caused by the bacterial genus Brucella. It is frequently misdiagnosed and can therefore lead to inappropriate treatment and prolonged disease. This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of human brucellosis cases and compare it with the national average and the number of goat brucellosis cases in Algeria. Materials and methods: A total of 3223 patients suspected of brucellosis were collected during 2008-2015 in Djelfa, central Algeria. Rose Bengal test and Wright’s serum agglutination were used for the diagnosis. Results: The number of positive cases was 1281 (39.74%), including 743 (58.04%) men and 537 (41.96%) women, resulting in a ratio of 1.38. Men were infected more than women. The number of positive cases was observed frequently between April and September. However, there was no significant difference among the investigated years in terms of infection. The highest prevalence was observed in individuals aged between 11 and 30 years (21.62-22.32%). The seroprevalence of human brucellosis in the current study in Djelfa was significantly higher, compared to the national level. The number of animals (goats) and human cases reported at the national level and Djelfa followed a similar trend. Conclusion: Brucellosis still remains a serious public health threat in the study area. Epidemiological surveillance of brucellosis should be considered a priority in order to reduce the prevalence of human and animal brucellosis.
Brucellosis is a bacterial infection caused by a bacterium of the genus Brucella which is distributed worldwide and transmitted to humans from infected animals1, 2. Brucellaabortus, Brucella suis, and Brucella melitensis are species that infect cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats and are responsible for most human cases3, 4, 5. Brucellosis may cause considerable economic losses. It is considered a significant public health threat in some countries of the Mediterranean basin and many developing countries1. Due to the complexity of the epidemiology of brucellosis, disease control in these regions has faced many obstacles6. Human brucellosis is related to the lifestyle of people, especially those living in rural regions, where the consumption of food and milk of animal origin is more frequent and less controlled7. The symptoms of brucellosis vary from acute to chronic form with continuous or noncontinuous fever8. However, misdiagnosis usually occurs due to the similarity of symptoms with other diseases9. Human brucellosis is widespread in many areas of the world, but the number of reported cases has decreased significantly in some countries due to mandatory pasteurization of milk, elimination of infected animals, and vaccination10. Brucellosis is endemic in North African countries11, including Algeria. It is only since the 1980s that several outbreaks of human and animal brucellosis have been reported in Algeria (Ghardaia in the south, Tlemcen in the west, Setif in the east). Although the public health services have introduced control and eradication measures for both animal and human brucellosis11, 12, little investigation of brucellosis has been conducted6. This study aimed to participate in a more specific estimation of the epidemiological situation of human brucellosis in Algeria, via a retrospective study of reported cases between 2008 and 2015 in the hospital of the Wilaya of Djelfa, central Algeria. The prevalence reported in Djelfa was compared with the rate of human and animal (goat) brucellosis at the national level.